Investigating The Role of African Immigrant-Owned Small Businesses in Employment Creation for South Africa
The recurring tension between immigrants and locals in the townships and inner cities of South Africa is a source of concern. As immigrants continue to grow and exhibit their entrepreneurial flair being owners and managers of small businesses they contend with aggression based on the perception that they are job takers. This paper presents the findings of the role that African immigrants play in creating employment for South Africans and the transference of entrepreneurial skills to them. It is based on secondary data from academic journal articles, publications from governmental and non-governmental organizations and relevant books.
A review of literature on migration, the effect of immigration on entrepreneurship and African immigrant entrepreneurs in South Africa formed the background to the study. The outcome of this research is consistent with contemporary literature; that immigrant entrepreneurs contribute to the local economy in job creation and promote entrepreneurship. The research also recommends changes to entrepreneurship and small business policies and immigration laws in South Africa. To be more inclusive of immigrant businesses owners and to supports all irrespective of immigration status.
Akoojee S. (2009). “Scarce skills and public technical and vocational education and training in South Africa: Twin challenges or two sides of the same coin?”, Southern African Review of Education, Vol.15(2), pp.117-138.
Aregbesohola RA. (2010). “The impact of intra-continental migration in Africa: interrogation the economic dynamics of African migrants in South Africa”, Africa Insight, Vol.40(1), pp.62-77.
Beauchemin C, and Bocquier P. (2004). “Migration and urbanisation in francophone West Africa: an overview of the recent empirical evidence”, Journal of Urban Studies, Vol.41(11), pp.2245-2272.
Becker CM, Hammer AH, and Morrison AR. (1994). “Beyond urban bias in Africa: urbanisation in an era of structural adjustment”, Heinemann, London.
Bernstein A. (2009). “Managing migration in South Africa’s national interest”, Centre for Development and Enterprise, Round Table 12, available online: http://www.cde.org.za/south-africa-s-future/85-4-south-africa-s-future-and-issues-of-national-importance/133-managing-migration-in-south-africa-s-national-interest-lessons-from-international-experience.
Castles S. (2007). “Twenty-first century migration as a challenge to sociology”, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Vol.33(3), pp.351-371.
Collins J. (2008). “Immigrant Entrepreneurs in Australia: Regulations and Response”, Migracoes, Vol.1, pp.49-59.
Crush J. (1997). “Covert operations: clandestine migration, temporary work and immigration policy in South Africa”, Migration and Policy Series No1, Southern Africa Migration Project, Cape Town.
Crush J. (2001). “Immigration, xenophobia and human rights in South Africa”, Southern African Migration Project, Migration Policy Series 22, Cape Town, Queens University, Canada.
Dodson B. (2009). “Locating xenophobia: debate, disclosure, and everyday experiences in Cape Town, South Africa”, Africa Today, Vol.56(3), pp.1-22.
Douglas MS. (1988). “Economic development and international migration in comparative perspective”, Population and Development Review, Vol.14(3), pp.383-413.
Enchautengui ME. (2005). “Immigration and county employment growth”, The Urban Institute, Washington, D.C.
FPI. (2012). “Immigrant small business owners: a significant and growing part of the economy”, Fiscal Policy Institute, New York.
GCIS. (2012). "South Africa Yearbook 2011/12", Department of Government Communications and Information Systems, Pretoria, available online: www.gcis.gov.za/content/resourcecentre/sa-info/yearbook2011-12.
Goetz SJ. (1999). “Migration and local labour markets: the web book of regional science”, Penn State University.
Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. (2011). “United States Report”, Babson College.
Hardy J. (2009). “Migration, migrant workers and capitalism, international socialism”, available online: http://www.isj.org.uk/index.php4?id=535&issue=122 (Accessed on 23/04/2013)
Haywood J. (2008). “The Great migrations: from the earliest humans to the age of globalisation”, Quercus Books, London.
Hegde G, Narahari NS. (2009). “Inherited skills and technology: Indian entrepreneurship development”, Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, Vol.14(2), pp.195-203.
Held D, McGrew A, Goldblatt D, and Perraton J. (1999). “Global Transformations: Politics, Economics and Culture”, Polity, Cambridge.
Helton AC. (2003). “People movement: the need for world migration organisation”, available online: http/www.cfr.org/publication/5950/people_movement.html? (Accessed on: 24/04/2013)
Hunter N, and Skinner C. (2001). “Foreign street traders working in inner city Durban: survey results and policy dilemmas”, Research Report No 49, School of Development Studies, University of Natal, Durban.
Kalitanyi V, and Visser K. (2010). “African immigrants in South Africa: job takers or job creators?”, South African Journals of Economic and Management Science, Vol.13(4), pp.376-388.
Levie J. (2007). “Immigration, in-migration, ethnicity and entrepreneurship in the United Kingdom”, Small Business Economics, Vol.28, pp.143-169.
Lightelm AA. (2010). “Entrepreneurship and Small Business Sustainability”, South Africa Business Review, Vol.14(3), pp.131-153.
Light I, and Bhachu P. (eds). (2004). “Immigration and entrepreneurship: culture, capital and ethnic networks”, Transaction Publishers, New Jersey.
Maharaj B. (2004). “Immigration to post-apartheid South Africa. Global Migration Perspectives, 1”, Global International Migration GCIM. Geneva, Switzerland, available online: http://www.queensu.ca/samp/migrationresources/Documents/Maharaj_immigration.pdf.
Martin P. (2009). “Global Migration Trends”, Centre for Development and Enterprise 12, available online: http://reference.sabinet.co.za/webx/access/electronic_journals/afrins/afrins_v40_n1_a5.pdf.
Martin P, Leoffelholz HD, and Straubhaar T. (2002). “Managing migration for economic growth: Germany and the United States in comparative perspective”, The American Institute for Contemporary German Studies, Washington.
Mapisa-Nqakula N. (2006). “Statement on behalf of the group of 77 and China at the high level dialogue on international migration and development”, United Nations, New York 14 September.
McDonald DA, Masike L, and Golden C. (1999). “The Lives and Times of African Migrants and Immigration in Post-Apartheid South Africa. Southern African Migration Project”, Migration Policy Series No 13, Queens University Canada, Cape Town.
McKinley B. (2006). “Facts and figures: Migration in the twenty-first century”, available online: http://www.iom.int/September 07, 2006.
McNeil WH. (1978). “Human Migration: An historical overview”, in McNeil WH, and Adams RS. (ed.). “Human Migration: Patterns and Policies”, pp.3-19.
McNeil WH. (1998). “World history and the rise and fall of the west”, Journal of World History, Vol.9(2), pp.215-236.
Nayer WH. (2006). “Globalisation, history and development: a tale of two centuries”, Cambridge Journal of Economics, Vol.30(1), pp.137-159.
Nieman G, and Nieuwenhuizen C. (2009). “The nature and development of entrepreneurship”, in Nieman GH, and Nieuwenhuizen C. (eds). “Entrepreneurship. A South-African Perspective”, 2nd edition, Van Schaik, Pretoria, South-Africa.
Nwajiuba C, Uwadoka C, and Onyeneke R. (2009). “Participation of West African migrants in enterprises in Lagos State, Nigeria”, Paper presented at the Oxford Business and Economics Conference, June 22-24, St Hugh’s College. Oxford University, Oxford England.
Owusu TY. (2000). “The role of Ghanaian immigrant association in Toronto Canada”, International Migration Review, Vol.34(4), pp.1155-1181.
Pieterse JN. (2003). “Social capital migration: beyond ethic economics”, Ethnicities, Vol.3(1), pp.29-58.
Peberdy SA. (2000). “Border crossing: small entrepreneurs and cross-border trade between South Africa and Mozambique”, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
Peberdy S, and Rogerson CM. (2000). “Transnational and Non-South African entrepreneurs in South Africa’s SMME economy”, Canadian Journal of African Studies, Vol.34(1), pp.20-40.
Posel D. (2003). “Have migration patterns in post-apartheid South Africa changed?”, Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Natal, available online: http://pum.princeton.edu/pumconference/papers/1-posel.pdf (Retrieved on 30/06/2010).
Rath J, and Kloosterman R. (2000). “Outsiders business: a critical review of research on immigrant entrepreneurship”, International Migration Review, Vol.34(3), pp.1-27.
Rezia G, Mohammed Z, and Shamsudin M. (2011). “Informal education and developing entrepreneurial skills among farmers in Malaysia”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol.79, pp.254-261.
Rogerson JM. (1995). “The Changing face of retailing in the South African city: the case of inner-city Johannesburg”, Africa Insight, Vol.25, pp.163-171.
Rogerson CM. (1997). “International migration, immigrant entrepreneurs and South Africa’s small enterprise economy”, Southern African Migration Project. Migration Policy Series No 3, Cape Town. Institute for Democracy in South Africa, Queens University, Canada.
Rogerson CM. (1998). “Rural SMME development in South Africa: The White River Area, Mpumalanga”, Africa Insight, Vol.28(1/2), pp.53-64.
Sahin M, Baycan T, and Nijkamp P. (2011).” The economic importance of migrant entrepreneurship: an application of Data Envelopment Analysis in the Netherlands”, Town and Regional Planning, Vol.59, pp.16-23.
Sassen S. (1988). “The mobility of labour and capital: A study in international investment and labour flow”, The Journal of Economic History, Vol.49(13), pp.249-251.
Serrie H. (1998). “Immigrant entrepreneurs, ethnic networks and family dynamics”, Review in Anthropology, Vol.27(3), pp.213-223.
South Africa Info. (2004). “United Nations High Commission for refugees and migration information source”, Refugees and asylum-seeker, available online: http://www.southafrica.info/ (accessed on 05/08/2005).
Statistics South Africa. (2013). “Key indicators”, available online: http://www.statss.gov.za/key indicators/key indicator. asp (accessed on 04/04/2013)
Steenkamp C. (2009). “Xenophobia in South Africa: What does it say about trust?”, Round Table, Vol.98(403), pp.439-449.
Timberg C. (2005). “Refugees with hopes, skills find opportunity in South Africa”, Washington Post, Foreign Service, A 21.
Van Vuuren J, and Nieman GH. (1999). “Entrepreneurship education and training: a model for syllabi design”, in Raffa, Proceedings of the 44th Annual Conference of the International Council for Small Business, Naples Italy, June 20-22.
Verhoef G. (2009). “Saving for life to build the economy for the people: the emergence of Afrikanner corporate conglomerate in South Africa, 1918-2000”, South African Journal of Economic History, Vol.24(1), pp.118-163.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Send mail to firstname.lastname@example.org with questions or comments about this web site.
International Journal of Management and Social Sciences, All rights reserved.