SOCIOECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF CHILD SEX RATIO IN INDIA
Rapid decline in child sex ratio (CSR) in India is a serious problem with severe socioeconomic, demographic and cultural implication. It is a broad indicator, which reveals the ground realities that exist in the fabric of the society. Moreover, the child sex ratio is a powerful index to examine the social response in female children. Present sex composition of the child population determines the future vital events such as marriage rate, labour force, age structure, birth and deaths, migration, and replacement etc. Therefore, deficit in girl child population, leads to serious demographic imbalance and adverse social consequences. However, in recent decades, the drastic decline in child sex ratio is an issue of grave concern in India. Therefore, efforts are needed to solve the issue thereby create equal regard and affection for the girl child. Otherwise, the child population will become skewed leading to a host of several societal problems.
Data needed for the present study have been collected from Census of India (2011), SRS (2009) and IHDS (2010). Using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) Model and Quantile Regression Model for twenty one major states of India, the paper tries to examine the socioeconomic determinants of child sex ratio. Twenty four variables relating to demography and development, marriage and family pattern, marriage expenses and dowry, women’s control over resources, women’s physical mobility, expectation of old age support from daughter and women’s participation in the work. The results show that average wedding expenses for female, women’s purchasing large items, percent women practice Ghunghat and percent female cultivators among working age women have a significant negative association with child sex ratio in India in 2011. Decadal population growth rate and percent expecting financial help from daughters in old age have a significant positive association with child sex ratio. Thus, strengthening old age support from daughters will reduce son preference attitude. Reduction in wedding expenses is an utmost need for balancing child sex ratio in India.
Agnihotri SB. (2000). “Sex Ratio Patterns in Indian Population: A Fresh Exploration”, Sage Publications, New Delhi.
Buchinsky and Eide. (1994). “Changes in the U. S. Wage Structure 1963-1987: Application of Quantile Regression”, Econometrica, Vol.62, pp.405-27-58.
Census of India. (2011). “State wise: Population Census 2011 India details and analysis”, http:www.census2011.co.in/states.php, accessed on 7/12/2012.
Clark A. (1983). “Limitations on Female Life Chances in Rural Cenral Gujarat, The Indian Economic and Social History Review”, Vol.20(1), pp.1-25.
Croll E. (2000). “Endangered Daughters: Discrimination and Development in Asia”, Routledge, New York.
Dasgupta M, and Bhat PNM. (1995). “Intensified gender bias in India: a consequence of fertility decline”, working paper No:2, Center for population and Development Studies, Harvard University.
Dyson T, and Moore. (1983). “On Kinship Structure, Female Autonomy and Demographic Behaviour in India”, Population and Development Review, Vol.9, pp.35-60.
Edlund L. (1999). “Son Preference, Sex Ratios and Marriage Patterns”, Journal of Political Economy, Vol.107, pp.1275-304.
Hatti N, and Ohlsson R. (1984). “Age at Marriage in India 1960-79”, Demography India, No.2.
Hatti N, Sekhar TV, and Larsen M. (2004). “Lives at Risk: Declining Child Sex Ratio in India”, Lund papers in Economic History, Number 93.
Kleinbaum DG, Kupper LL, and Muller KE. (1988). “Applied Regression Analysis and Other Multivariate Methods”, 2nd edition, PWS-Kent, Bosten, Mass.
Koenker R and Bassett G. (1978). “Regression Quantiles” Econometrica, Vol.46, pp.33-50.
Miller BD. (1981). “The Endangered Sex: Neglect of Female Children in Rural North India”, Ithaca, Cornell University Press.
Rahman L, and Rao V. (2004). “The Determinants of Gender Equity in India: Examining Dyson and Moore’s Thesis with new Data”, Population and Development Review, Vol.30, pp.239-68.
Report IHDS. (2010). “Human Development in India”, Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
Registrar General of India. (2009). “Sample Registration System”, Statistical Report.
Sekher TV, Raju KNM, and Sivakumar MN. (2001). “Fertiltiy Transition in Karnataka: Levels, Trends and Implications”, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol.36(51), pp.4742-52.
Sen A. (1990). “More than a Hundred Million Women are Missing”, New York Review of Books, Christmas Number (20 December), pp.61-66.
Sen A. (2003). “Missing Women–Revisited”, British Medical Journal, Vol.327(7427), pp.1297-98.
Singariya MR. (2012). “Determinants of Declining Child Sex Ratio in Rajasthan”, Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, IISTE, Vol.3(1), pp9-19, accessed through http://www.iiste.org
Visariya P. (1971). “The Sex Ratio of Population of India”, Census of India 1961. Monograph No. 10. Manager of Publications, Delhi.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Send mail to email@example.com with questions or comments about this web site.
International Journal of Management and Social Sciences, All rights reserved.